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In vivo titration of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei by intramuscular and oral routes
Escobedo-Bonilla, C.M.; Wille, M.; Sanz, V.A.; Sorgeloos, P.; Pensaert, M.B.; Nauwynck, H.J. (2005). In vivo titration of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei by intramuscular and oral routes. Dis. Aquat. Org. 66(2): 163-170. dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao066163
In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. Inter Research: Oldendorf/Luhe. ISSN 0177-5103, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 230669 [ OMA ]

Keyword
    Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) [WoRMS]
Author keywords
    Litopenaeus vannamei; WSSV; in vivo titration; intramuscular

Authors  Top 
  • Escobedo-Bonilla, C.M., more
  • Wille, M., more
  • Sanz, V.A.
  • Sorgeloos, P., more
  • Pensaert, M.B., more
  • Nauwynck, H.J., more

Abstract
    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a devastating pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. Standardized challenge procedures using a known amount of infectious virus would assist in evaluating strategies to reduce its impact. In this study, the shrimp infectious dose 50% endpoint (SID50 ml-1) of a Thai isolate of WSSV was determined by intramuscular inoculation (i.m.) in 60 and 135 d old specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, the lethal dose 50% endpoint (LD50 ml-1) was determined from the proportion of dead shrimp. The median virus infection titers in 60 and 135 d old juveniles were 10(6.8) and 10(6.5) SID50 ml-1, respectively. These titers were not significantly different (p >= 0.05). The titration of the WSSV stock by oral intubation in 80 d old juveniles resulted in approximately 10-fold reduction in virus titer compared to i.m. inoculation. This lower titer is probably the result of physical and chemical barriers in the digestive tract of shrimp that hinder WSSV infectivity. The titers determined by infection were identical to the titers determined by mortality in all experiments using both i.m. and oral routes at 120 h post inoculation (hpi), indicating that every infected shrimp died. The determination of WSSV titers for dilutions administered by i.m. and oral routes constitutes the first step towards the standardization of challenge procedures to evaluate strategies to reduce WSSV infection.

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