|Sponges as substrata and early life history of the tubulariid Zyzzyzus warreni (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil|
|Alexandre de Camposa, C.J.; Migotto, A.E.; Pinheiro, U.; Marques, A.C. (2012). Sponges as substrata and early life history of the tubulariid Zyzzyzus warreni (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) in the São Sebastião Channel, Brazil. Mar. Biol. Res. 8(7): 573-583. dx.doi.org/10.1080/17451000.2011.638641|
|In: Marine Biology Research. Taylor & Francis: Oslo. ISSN 1745-1000, more|
Feeding behaviour; Life history; Settlement (biological); Hydrozoa [WoRMS]; Porifera [WoRMS]; Zyzzyzus warreni Calder, 1988 [WoRMS]; Marine
The hydroid Zyzzyzus warreni is usually found in shallow coastal waters forming aggregations of solitary polyps embedded in demosponges. Early life history transformations and settlement responses by the actinulae of this hydroid were studied in the laboratory using 13 species of sponges and 2 species of algae collected in the São Sebastião Channel (Brazil) as substrata. The absence of oral tentacles and mouth in the actinulae and early events of metamorphosis suggest that these larvae are unable to spend long periods in the plankton and attach quickly near conspecifics when a preferred substratum is encountered. The time required for settlement and the number of elicited settlings indicated four settlement responses: (a) frequent and short-time settlement, in actinulae exposed to Halichondria cebimarensis, Mycale angulosa, M. aff. americana, M. laxissima (skeleton) and Tedania ignis; (b) moderate and delayed settlement, in actinulae exposed to Aplysina caissara, A. fulva, Haliclona melana and M. microsigmatosa; (c) no settlement, in actinulae exposed to Suberites aurantiacus and to the algae Hypnea musciformis and Sargassum cymosum; and (d) lethal response, in actinulae exposed to Amphimedon viridis, Aplysilla rosea, Dragmacidon reticulatum and M. laxissima. These responses indicate a considerable degree of species discrimination by the actinulae and are consistent with substrata used by the hydroid in the natural environment.