|Temperature-mediated trade-offs and changes in life-history integration in two slipper limpets (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) with planktotrophic development|
|Collin, R. (2012). Temperature-mediated trade-offs and changes in life-history integration in two slipper limpets (Gastropoda: Calyptraeidae) with planktotrophic development. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 106(4): 763-775. dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2012.01908.x|
|In: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Academic Press: London. ISSN 0024-4066, more|
adaptive phenotypic plasticity; phenotypic covariance; P-matrix; temperature-size rule
Intraspecific variation in egg size and hatching size, and the genetic and environmental trade-offs that contribute to variation, are the basis of the evolution of life histories. The present study examined both univariate and multivariate temperature-mediated plasticity of life-history traits, as well as temperature-mediated trade-offs in egg size and clutch size, in two planktotrophic species of marine slipper limpets, Crepidula. Previous work with two species of Crepidula with large eggs and lecithotrophic development has shown a significant effect of temperature on egg size and hatching size. To further examine the effect of temperature on egg size in Crepidula, the effects of temperature on egg size and hatching size, as well as the possible trade-offs with other the life-history features, were examined for two planktotrophic species: Crepidula incurva and Crepidula cf. marginalis. Field-collected juveniles were raised at 23 or 28 °C and egg size, hatching size, capsules/brood, eggs/capsule, time to hatch, interbrood interval, and final body weight were recorded. Consistent with results for the lecithotrophic Crepidula, egg size and hatching size decreased with temperature in the planktotrophic species. The affects of maternal identity and individual brood account for more than half of the intraspecific variation in egg size and hatching size. Temperature also showed a significant effect on reproductive rate, with time to hatch and interbrood interval both decreasing with increasing temperature. However, temperature had contrasting effects on the number of offspring. Crepidula cf. marginalis has significantly more eggs/capsule and therefore more eggs per brood at 28 °C compared to 23 °C, although capsules/brood did not vary with temperature. Crepidula incurva, on the other hand, produced significantly more capsules/brood and more eggs per brood at the lower temperature, whereas the number of eggs/capsule did not vary with temperature. The phenotypic variance–covariance matrix of life-history variables showed a greater response to temperature in C. incurva than in C. cf. marginalis, and temperature induced trade-offs between offspring size and number differ between the species. These differences suggest that temperature changes as a result of seasonal upwelling along the coast of Panama will effect the reproduction and evolution of life histories of these two co-occurring species differently.