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Reversed Kuznets curves in the Caribbean: linking marine biodiversity endangerment with the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and assessed with human metrics (life expectancy, infant mortality, population growth rate)
Huettmann, F. (2015). Reversed Kuznets curves in the Caribbean: linking marine biodiversity endangerment with the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and assessed with human metrics (life expectancy, infant mortality, population growth rate), in: Huettmann, F. (Ed.) Central American biodiversity. Conservation, ecology, and a sustainable future. pp. 105-134. hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-1-4939-2208-6_4
In: Huettmann, F. (Ed.) (2015). Central American biodiversity. Conservation, ecology, and a sustainable future. Springer New York: New York. ISBN 978-1-4939-2207-9. xxviii, 805 pp., more

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Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    Ecological Economy GDP Sustainable Development Life Quality Marine Biodiversity

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  • Huettmann, F.

Abstract
    Islands and their surrounding waters are microcosms that can offer quasi-independent experiments and which allow to test for impacts. Charles Darwin for instance made great use of this concept, and so did the discipline of biogeography and environmental studies. The Caribbean ecosystem is a globally unique land- and seascape that consists of coral reefs and thousands of islands. The biggest reef area of the Caribbean is found in the greater Antilles and the Bahamas, but coral reefs do not conform well to national borders, e.g., Belize. The Caribbean and its reef ecosystem are directly affected by various watersheds reaching from Upper Canada to the Orinoco basin for instance. This region actually consists of over 30 nations and has one of the highest concentrations of nationally shared marine borders and exclusive economic zones (EEZs) in the world. Solorzano et al. (2005) stated: “The basin includes the world’s largest concentration of small countries that represent the world’s major political systems.” Thus, the Caribbean makes for a great and complex natural, scientific, and conservation management test bed but that has rarely been used to its full potential, yet.

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