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Evaluation of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) degradation and toxicity to Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms
Hanson, M.L.; Sibley, P.K.; Ellis, D.A.; Mabury, S.A.; Muir, D.C.G.; Solomon, K.R. (2002). Evaluation of monochloroacetic acid (MCA) degradation and toxicity to Lemna gibba, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Myriophyllum sibiricum in aquatic microcosms. Aquat. Toxicol. 61(3-4): 251-273
In: Aquatic Toxicology. Elsevier Science: Tokyo; New York; London; Amsterdam. ISSN 0166-445X, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Microcosms; Lemna gibba; Myriophyllum sibiricum Kom. [WoRMS]; Myriophyllum spicatum L. [WoRMS]; Fresh water

Authors  Top 
  • Hanson, M.L.
  • Sibley, P.K.
  • Ellis, D.A.
  • Mabury, S.A.
  • Muir, D.C.G.
  • Solomon, K.R.

Abstract
    The fate of monochloroacetic acid (MCA), a common phytotoxic aquatic contaminant, and its toxicity to the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba (L. gibba), Myriophyllum spicatum (M. spicatum), and Myriophyllum sibiricum (M. sibiricum) under semi-natural field conditions was studied. Replicate 12,000 l enclosures were treated with 0, 3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/l of MCA. Each microcosm was stocked with eight individual apical shoots of M. spicatum and M. sibiricum 1 day prior to initiation of exposure. Plants were sampled after 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of exposure and their response assessed using numerous somatic and biochemical endpoints. L. gibba was introduced into the microcosms the day of MCA treatment and monitored regularly for 21 days. The half-life of MCA in the water column ranged between 86 and 523 h. The most sensitive plant species was M. spicatum, followed by M. sibiricum and L. gibba. All species demonstrated toxicity within a threefold range of each other. Endpoint sensitivity varied depending on the duration of exposure and the level of effect chosen. Most species endpoint ECx values were less than an order of magnitude different. Citrate levels in Myriophyllum spp. were not influenced by exposure to MCA. The toxicity of MCA to M. spicatum and M. sibiricum was very similar and thus highly predictive of toxicity observed for each other. The EC10 was a more conservative estimate of toxicity than the statistically derived no observed effect concentration. Current concentrations of MCA are not likely to pose a risk to these aquatic plants in surface waters.

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