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Ocean Biochemical Cycling and Trace Elements
de Baar, H.J.W; van Heuven, S.; Middag, R. (2017). Ocean Biochemical Cycling and Trace Elements, in: Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, : pp. 1-21; Chapter 356-1. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39193-9_356-1
In: (2017). Encyclopedia of Geochemistry. Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer: Cham. ISBN 9783319391939. , more
In: Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. Springer: Dordrecht. ISSN 1388-4360; e-ISSN 1871-756X, more

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  • de Baar, H.J.W, more
  • van Heuven, S., more
  • Middag, R., more

Abstract
    Dissolved inorganic carbon (C as DIC) varies around ~2 millimoles [mM = 10−3 M] in seawater and is pivotal for life in the sea. Much less abundant are the nutrients nitrate and phosphate that occur in the micromole [μM = 10−6 M] range and are essential for each living organism. Also essential for life are several trace nutrient elements , notably Fe and Zn, that occur in the nanomolar [nM = 10−9 M] range or even lower such as Co in the picomolar [pM = 10−12 M] range. Several other trace elements also occur in the nanomolar [nM] to picomolar [pM] range. Finally a few ultratrace elements occur in the femtomolar [fM = 10−15 M] range in seawater.

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