|Review on the dietary effects of phospholipids in fish and crustacean larviculture|
|Coutteau, P.; Geurden, I.; Camara, M.R.; Bergot, P.; Sorgeloos, P. (1997). Review on the dietary effects of phospholipids in fish and crustacean larviculture. Aquaculture 155: 149-164|
|In: Aquaculture. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0044-8486, more|
|Also published as |
- Coutteau, P.; Geurden, I.; Camara, M.R.; Bergot, P.; Sorgeloos, P. (1997). Review on the dietary effects of phospholipids in fish and crustacean larviculture, in: (1997). IZWO Coll. Rep. 27(1997). IZWO Collected Reprints, 27: pp. chapter 5 [Subsequent publication], more
Complex lipids; Crustacean culture; Crustacean larvae; Diets; Fish culture; Fish larvae; Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water
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A beneficial effect of dietary phospholipid (PL) supplementation in purified diets in terms of survival, growth, resistance to stress tests, and occurrence of deformities has been demonstrated in larval and juvenile stages of various species of fish and crustaceans. The exact determination of PL requirements in larvae is complicated due to the difficulty to bio-encapsulate PL in live prey. Furthermore, the great variety in purity and composition of the PL sources, and the experimental conditions (such as diet formulation and extent of co/prefeeding with live food) makes it difficult to compare requirements determined with artificial diets. Larval stages are extremely sensitive to a dietary PL deficiency and require higher levels of dietary PL than juveniles. For most of the fish and crustacean species examined, the estimated PL requirement of larvae are in the range of 1-3% phosphatidylcholine + phosphatidylinositol (PC + PI) of dry weight. The absence of a PL requirement in the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii exemplifies the important species differences. The few studies evaluating single PL unsaturated fatty acid in sn-2 position of the PL molecule seems to be essential for the functionality of PL. Some studies in crustaceans reported a relation between PL requirements and the protein source in the diet. Various hypotheses have been formulated to explain the effects of PL. The PL effect is not related to the provision of choline, inositol or essential fatty acids (EFA). However, PL may be superior to neutral lipids for larvae as a source of EFA and energy due to their better digestibility. Pl may improve the performance of the diet by improving the water stability of food particles, or by their action as antioxidant or feed attractant. The effect of dietary PL appears not to be explained by their emulsifying ability. However, there are proofs that dietary PL interfere with lipid transport, especially cholesterol transport in crustaceans, and with retention of fatty acids provided by dietary triacylglycerol. Although the origin of the requirement is still unclear, dietary PL supplementation has potential importance for the formulation of practical larval diets.