|Toxicity of copper sulfate for survival, growth, molting and feeding of juveniles of the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon|
Chen, J.-C.; Lin, C.H. (2001). Toxicity of copper sulfate for survival, growth, molting and feeding of juveniles of the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture 192: 55-65
In: Aquaculture. Elsevier: Amsterdam; London; New York; Oxford; Tokyo. ISSN 0044-8486, more
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The aim of this study was to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of copper sulfate for juveniles of Penaeus monodon. The 96-h LC50s (median lethal concentrations) of copper on juvenile P. monodon (0.63±0.13 g) were 3.13 and 7.73 mg/l in seawater of 15 and 25 , respectively. The mortality rates of P. monodon juveniles (0.19±0.02 g) following exposure to 0 (control), 0.45, 0.90, 1.80 and 4.50 mg/l copper after 30 days was 0%, 0%, 5.6%, 22.2% and 55.6%, respectively. After 30 days of exposure, the body weight and total length of shrimps exposed to copper at 0.90 mg/l and higher was significantly lower (P<0.05) than those in the control. The 30-day EC50 (concentration that reduced weight gain by 50% of that of the controls) and 60-day EC50 were 2.82 and 1.89 mg/l copper, respectively. The ratio of carapace length to total length of shrimps exposed to copper at 0.90 mg/l was significantly higher (P<0.05) than the controls. Following exposure to copper as low as 0.90 mg/l, P. monodon shortened the time to the first molt, and decreased its growth and molting frequency. Following exposure to copper as low as 5.0 mg/l, P. monodon juveniles (6.25±0.09 g) decreased their feeding. The MATC (maximum acceptable toxicant concentration) was 0.45 mg/l copper based on the growth and molting of shrimps weighing 0.18-1.03 g, and was 1.0 mg/l copper based on the feeding of shrimps weighing 6.25 g.