|Geographical patterns in range extension of Ponto-Caspian macroinvertebrate species in Europe|
|Bij de Vaate, A.; Jazdzewski, K.; Ketelaars, H.A.M.; Gollasch, S.; van der Velde, G. (2002). Geographical patterns in range extension of Ponto-Caspian macroinvertebrate species in Europe. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59(7): 1159-1174|
|In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences = Journal canadien des sciences halieutiques et aquatiques. National Research Council Canada: Ottawa. ISSN 0706-652X, more|
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Range extensions of aquatic Ponto-Caspian macroinvertebrate species in Europe have mainly been facilitated by the interconnection of river basins through man-made canals and intentional introductions. Three inland migration corridors can be distinguished: (i) a northern corridor: Volga, Lake Beloye, Lake Onega, Lake Ladoga, Neva, Baltic Sea, (ii) a central corridor connecting the rivers Dnieper, Vistula, Oder, Elbe, Rhine, and (iii) a southern corridor connecting the Danube and Rhine rivers. Important trade harbours in Europe were connected via these corridors allowing further range extensions of macroinvertebrate species attached to a vessel’s hull or in ballast water. The central corridor was the main migration route before 1992, after which the southern corridor became the most important migration route for the range expansions to the west because of the reopening of the Main-Danube Canal, connecting the Rhine and Danube basins. Especially the water level maintenance in the upper part of the canal, with water supply from the Danube basin, facilitated migration of mobile animals (e.g., crustaceans) from the Danube basin towards the Rhine basin; however, contribution of other transport mechanisms (e.g., shipping) is expected in the near future.