|Alien species of Bugula (Bryozoa) along the Atlantic coasts of Europe|
|Ryland, J.S.; Bishop, J.D.D.; De Blauwe, H.; El Nagar, E.; Minchin, D.; Wood, C.A.; Yunnie, A.L.E. (2011). Alien species of Bugula (Bryozoa) along the Atlantic coasts of Europe. Aquat. Invasions 6(1): 17-31|
|In: Aquatic Invasions. European Research Network on Aquatic and Invasive Species: St. Petersburg. ISSN 1818-5487, more|
Alien species; Bugula Oken, 1815 [WoRMS]; Bugula neritina (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Bugula simplex Hincks, 1886 [WoRMS]; Bugula stolonifera Ryland, 1960 [WoRMS]; Europe, Western Europe; Marine
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Three apparently non-native species of Bugula occur in marinas and harbours in Atlantic Europe. The most common, B. neritina, was known from a few sites in southern Britain and northern France during the 20th century, following its discovery at Plymouth by 1911. During the 1950-60s it was abundant in a dock heated by power station effluent at Swansea, south Wales, where it flourished until the late 1960s, while water temperatures were 7-10°C above ambient. It disappeared after power generation ceased, when summer temperatures probably became insufficient to support breeding. Details of disappearances have not been recorded but B. neritina was not seen in Britain between c1970 and 1999. Since 2000, it has been recorded along the south coast of England, and subsequently in marinas in the southern North Sea, Ireland and southern Scotland, well to the north of its former range, as well as along the Atlantic coast from Spain to The Netherlands. It has also been introduced to outlying localities such as the Azores and Tristan da Cunha. We report that this rapidly spreading form has the same COI haplotype as B. neritina currently invasive elsewhere in the world. B. simplex has been reported less, with 1950s records from settlement panels in some Welsh docks. It has not been targeted in most recent marina surveys but has been observed in southwest England, Belgium and The Netherlands. There are almost no recent records of B. stolonifera, though it was probably introduced to a few British and Irish ports prior to the 1950s. Its current status in most of western Europe is unknown but it has been reported as expanding throughout most of the world during the last 60 years. Having poorly known distributions, B. simplex and B. stolonifera should be recorded during future monitoring of alien species in Atlantic Europe. Illustrations to aid identification are included for all three species.