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Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary
Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) (1998). Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1). Developments in Hydrobiology, 128. ISBN 0-7923-5158-4. 167 pp.
Part of:
Hydrobiologia. Springer: The Hague. ISSN 0018-8158, more
Dumont, H.J. (Ed.) Developments in Hydrobiology. Kluwer Academic/Springer: The Hague; London; Boston; Dordrecht. ISSN 0167-8418, more
Peer reviewed article  

Also published as
  • Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) (1998). Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Developments in Hydrobiology, 128. ISBN 0-7923-5158-4. 167 pp., more

Available in  Author 
  • VLIZ: Open Repository 140765 [ OMA ]
  • VLIZ: Proceedings D21 [7039]

Keyword
    Marine

Author  Top 
  • Baeyens, W.F.J., editor, more

Content
  • Baeyens, W.F.J.; Van Eck, B.T.M.; Lambert, C.; Wollast, R.; Goeyens, L. (1998). General description of the Scheldt estuary, in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 1-14, more
  • Baeyens, W.F.J.; Elskens, M.; Gillain, G.; Goeyens, L. (1998). Biogeochemical behaviour of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the Scheldt estuary during the period 1981-1983, in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 15-44, more
  • Baeyens, W.F.J.; Parmentier, K.; Goeyens, L.; Ducastel, G.; De Gieter, M.; Leermakers, M. (1998). The biogeochemical behaviour of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the Scheldt estuary: results of the 1995 surveys, in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 45-62, more
  • Baeyens, W.F.J.; Meuleman, C.; Muhaya, B.; Leermakers, M. (1998). Behaviour and speciation of mercury in the Scheldt estuary (water sediments and benthic organisms), in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 63-79, more
  • Baeyens, W.F.J.; Goeyens, L.; Monteny, F.; Elskens, I. (1998). Effect of organic complexation on the behaviour of dissolved Cd, Cu and Zn in the Scheldt estuary, in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 81-90, more
  • Baeyens, W.F.J.; Elskens, I.; Van Ryssen, R.; Leermakers, M. (1998). The impact of the Scheldt input on the trace metal distribution in the Belgian coastal area (results of 1981-1983 and 1995-1996), in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 91-108, more
  • Baeyens, W.F.J.; Monteny, F.; Van Ryssen, R.; Leermakers, M. (1998). A box-model of metal flows through the Scheldt estuary (1981-1983 and 1992-1995), in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 109-128, more
  • Ouboter, M.R.L.; Van Eck, B.T.M.; Van Gils, J.A.G.; Sweerts, J.P.; Villars, M.T. (1998). Water quality modelling of the western Scheldt estuary, in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 129-142, more
  • De Smedt, F.; Vuksanovic, V.; Van Meerbeeck, S.; Reyns, D. (1998). A time-dependent flow model for heavy metals in the Scheldt estuary, in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 143-155, more
  • Baeyens, W.F.J. (1998). Evolution of trace metal concentrations in the Scheldt estuary (1978-1995): a comparison with estuarine and ocean levels, in: Baeyens, W.F.J. (Ed.) Trace metals in the Westerschelde Estuary: a case-study of a polluted, partially anoxic estuary. Hydrobiologia, 366(1): pp. 157-167, more

Abstract
    excerpt from the introduction to this volumeOceans and lakes are characterised by great residence times and can thus be considered to be in a state of equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium. Estuaries, by contrast, which constitute the interface between freshwater and marine ecosystems, are biogeochemically and physically very dynamic. Strong gradients in physical and chemical variables such as temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nutrients and the amount and composition of particulates result from the mixing of freshwater and saline constituents. These gradients provoke increased biogeochemical processes, generally resulting in a geochemical filter (the area of high turbidity, showing enhanced adsorption-desorption processes) and a biological filter (the area of high plankton activity showing a high accumulation of trace metals as well as a high uptake of nutrients). Both filters disturb the conservative mixing pattern of the trace metals in an estuary. Four additional aspects make the Scheldt estuary very particular and different from other estuaries: (1) the Scheldt is a tide-governed estuary, which means greater residence times; (2) the upper estuary receives large inputs of biodegradable organic matter which leads to oxygen depletion in winter and to anoxic conditions in summer; (3) inputs of toxic pollutants from the industrial zone of Antwerp occur in the upper estuary; (4) the anoxic zone, the zone of pollutant input and the zone of the turbidity maximum coincide geographically. The Scheldt estuary is therefore an ideal field laboratory for the study of biogeochemical processes which do not occur elsewhere, or occur only partially, to a very slight extent or in a specific compartment such as the sediments. More specifically, redox processes involving trace metals, the formation of non-labile metal complexes or the methylation of mercury occur as a result of anoxic conditions and the high load of organic matter. Several models describing in detail the transport, sedimentation and speciation of the trace metals in this well-mixed estuary (all major estuaries in EC countries adjacent to the North Sea or the Atlantic Ocean are well-mixed) are presented in this volume. A comparison of the metal concentrations over a 15-year period shows a net reduction in the pollution level.

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