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Selective feeding by pelagic fish in the Belgian part of the North Sea
Van Ginderdeuren, K.; Vandendriessche, S.; Vincx, M.; Prössler, Y.; Matola, H.D.; Hostens, K. (2013). Selective feeding by pelagic fish in the Belgian part of the North Sea, in: Van Ginderdeuren, K. Zooplankton and its role in North Sea food webs: Community structure and selective feeding by pelagic fish in Belgian marine waters = Zooplankton en diens rol in Noordzee voedselwebben: Gemeenschapsstructuur en selectief foerageergedrag door pelagische vissen in Belgische mariene wateren. pp. 71-100
In: Van Ginderdeuren, K. (2013). Zooplankton and its role in North Sea food webs: Community structure and selective feeding by pelagic fish in Belgian marine waters = Zooplankton en diens rol in Noordzee voedselwebben: Gemeenschapsstructuur en selectief foerageergedrag door pelagische vissen in Belgische mariene wateren. PhD Thesis. Ghent University: Ghent. xx, 266 pp., more

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Keywords
    Diet; Herrings; Horse mackerel; Mackerels; Sprats; Zooplankton; ANE, Belgium, Belgian Coast [Marine Regions]; Marine
Author keywords
    Belgian part of the North Sea

Authors  Top 
  • Van Ginderdeuren, K., more
  • Vandendriessche, S., more
  • Vincx, M., more
  • Prössler, Y., more
  • Matola, H.D.
  • Hostens, K., more

Abstract
    Pelagic fish and their planktonic prey are susceptible to a changing climate, giving rise to mismatches and planktonic bottlenecks. A detailed examination of the feeding ecology of pelagic fish can provide valuable insights in the causes and consequences of these phenomena. The present study investigated the diets of both juvenile and adult herring, sprat, horse mackerel and adult mackerel in the Belgian part of the North Sea (BPNS) in relation to the distribution of zooplankton and ambient abiotic conditions. A study sampling pelagic fish and zooplankton simultaneously every month during consecutive years, and spanning nearshore to offshore sampling locations, is unprecedented in the southern North Sea. A total of 71 prey taxa were found in 725 stomachs of fish gathered at ten stations, sampled monthly in 2009 and 2010. The proportion of fish with empty stomachs was low (11 %), and the number of prey species ranged from 0 to 21 sp. per stomach. The diet of herring and sprat was dominated by calanoid copepods, but herring stomachs also contained many decapod larvae, amphipods, cumaceans and mysids. Mackerel added sandeels to an otherwise planktivorous diet. Horse mackerel consumed both benthic and pelagic prey. The highest frequency of occurrence in the stomachs was observed for the calanoid copepods Temora longicornis (33408 of all 55004 prey items identified) and Centropages hamatus (5003 times found). The fullness index ranged between 0 and 20.6, and averaged highest for sprat (0.86), followed by herring (0.60), horse mackerel (0.26) and mackerel (0.24). We observed a different composition of zooplankton species and life stages in the plankton samples compared to those in the fish stomachs. More adult and female copepods were eaten than the plankton samples would suggest. Also, the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi, the most common zooplankton species in the BPNS, was barely eaten, as was the case for fish eggs and larvae, and for common planktonic species known to be preyed upon elsewhere (e.g. Oikopleura dioica, Evadne nordmanni, Euterpina acutifrons). Additionally, plankton densities averaged highest in spring and at midshore (20-30 km from shore) stations, but fullness index was highest nearshore (< 12 km from shore) and (apart from sprat) in summer. A significant correlation between fullness index and total density of planktonic prey species was not observed, indicating that zooplankton densities were not restrictive. Yet the fact that more than 100 plankton species occurred in the plankton samples and just two of these (T. longicornis and C. hamatus) accounted for nearly three quarters of all ingested prey items, leads us to conclude that even minor changes in the ecology or phenology of these dominant zooplankters could have profound effects on pelagic fish stocks.

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