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Sewage pollution in the coastal waters of Mombasa City, Kenya: a norm rather than an exception
Ohowa, B.; Munga, D.; Kiteresi, L.I.; Wanjeri, V.O.; Okumu, S.; Kilonzo, J.; Okuku, E. O.; Mwangi, S. N. (2011). Sewage pollution in the coastal waters of Mombasa City, Kenya: a norm rather than an exception. Int. J. Environ. Res. 5(4): 865-874
In: International Journal of Environmental Research. University of Tehran, Graduate Faculty of Environment: Tehran. ISSN 1735-6865; e-ISSN 2008-2304, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    Pollution, nutrients, eutrophication, chlorophyll a, sewage

Authors  Top 
  • Ohowa, B.
  • Munga, D.
  • Kiteresi, L.I.
  • Wanjeri, V.O.
  • Okumu, S.
  • Kilonzo, J.
  • Okuku, E. O., more
  • Mwangi, S. N., more

    This study investigated the effects of sewage discharge on nutrient concentrations and BOD(5) levels in the coastal waters and sediments of the City of Mombasa. The results indicated that nutrient concentrations in Tudor, Mtwapa and Makupa Creeks were elevated as compared to concentrations in Gazi Creek (mean ranges of 0.022-0.039mg/L, 0.038-0.163mg/L and 0.034-0.118mg/Lphosphates, nitrates and ammonium respectively). Sediments were found to harbour relatively higher concentrations of nutrients than water compartment (mean ranges of 0.217-1.131mg/L, 0.199-0.603mg/L and 9.394-26.73mg/L for phosphates, nitrates and ammonium respectively) thus serving as a reservoir and potential source if sediments are re-suspended during heavy storms or dredging. Based on Chl-a levels, Makupa Creek could be classified as eutrophic whereas Mtwapa and Tudor Creeks could be placed at the upper limit of higher mesotrophy while Gazi Creekcould be considered as an oligotrophic system. Of the three impacted Creeks, Tudor was found to be the most polluted.

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