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Between the public and the state: the shipping lobby's strategies against US immigration restrictions 1882-1917
Feys, T. (2017). Between the public and the state: the shipping lobby's strategies against US immigration restrictions 1882-1917. International Migration Review 51(2): 344-374. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imre.12223
In: International Migration Review. Wiley-Blackwell: Hoboken. ISSN 0197-9183; e-ISSN 1747-7379, more
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    Marine/Coastal

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Abstract
    Based on Freeman's model of interest group-driven migration policies, the article gives a qualitative inside look on a neglected actor during the formative years of US immigration reform. It analyzes the central role of the shipping companies in coordinating the pro-immigration campaign with and against other interest groups. Their lobbying is divided into two complementary sections: inside top-down efforts (lobbyists) to influence legislators and outside bottom-up efforts (migrant communities and the press) to mobilize the public. It assesses the importance of public opinion in their lobby campaigns and the shipping companies' success in delaying far-reaching restrictions until 1917.

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