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The use of benthic indicators in Europe: From the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive
Van Hoey, G.; Borja, A.; Birchenough, S.; Buhl-Mortensen, L.; Degraer, S.; Fleischer, D.; Kerckhof, F.; Magni, P.; Muxika, I.; Reiss, H.; Schröder, A.; Zettler, M.L. (2010). The use of benthic indicators in Europe: From the Water Framework Directive to the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60(12): 2187-2196.
In: Marine Pollution Bulletin. Macmillan: London. ISSN 0025-326X; e-ISSN 1879-3363, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 216397 [ OMA ]

Author keywords
    Water Framework Directive; Marine Strategy Framework Directive; Macro-invertebrates; Indicators; Ecosystem approach; Monitoring

Authors  Top 
  • Van Hoey, G., more
  • Borja, A., more
  • Birchenough, S.
  • Buhl-Mortensen, L.
  • Degraer, S., more
  • Fleischer, D.
  • Kerckhof, F., more
  • Magni, P., more
  • Muxika, I.
  • Reiss, H.
  • Schröder, A.
  • Zettler, M.L., more

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) are the European umbrella regulations for water systems. It is a challenge for the scientific community to translate the principles of these directives into realistic and accurate approaches. The aim of this paper, conducted by the Benthos Ecology Working Group of ICES, is to describe how the principles have been translated, which were the challenges and best way forward. We have tackled the following principles: the ecosystem-based approach, the development of benthic indicators, the definition of ‘pristine’ or sustainable conditions, the detection of pressures and the development of monitoring programs. We concluded that testing and integrating the different approaches was facilitated during the WFD process, which led to further insights and improvements, which the MSFD can rely upon. Expert involvement in the entire implementation process proved to be of vital importance.

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