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Corazonin signaling integrates energy homeostasis and lunar phase to regulate aspects of growth and sexual maturation in Platynereis
Andreatta, G.; Broyart, C.; Borghgraef, C.; Vadiwala, K.; Kozin, V.; Polo, A.; Bileck, A.; Beets, I.; Schoofs, L.; Gerner, C.; Raible, F. (2020). Corazonin signaling integrates energy homeostasis and lunar phase to regulate aspects of growth and sexual maturation in Platynereis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117(2): 1097-1106.
In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. The Academy: Washington, D.C.. ISSN 0027-8424; e-ISSN 1091-6490, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    corazonin; GnRH; reproduction; regeneration; lunar periodicity

Authors  Top 
  • Andreatta, G.
  • Broyart, C.
  • Borghgraef, C., more
  • Vadiwala, K.
  • Kozin, V.
  • Polo, A.
  • Bileck, A.
  • Beets, I., more
  • Schoofs, L., more
  • Gerner, C.
  • Raible, F.

    The molecular mechanisms by which animals integrate external stimuli with internal energy balance to regulate major developmental and reproductive events still remain enigmatic. We investigated this aspect in the marine bristleworm, Platynereis dumerilii, a species where sexual maturation is tightly regulated by both metabolic state and lunar cycle. Our specific focus was on ligands and receptors of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) superfamily. Members of this superfamily are key in triggering sexual maturation in vertebrates but also regulate reproductive processes and energy homeostasis in invertebrates. Here we show that 3 of the 4 gnrh-like (gnrhl) preprohormone genes are expressed in specific and distinct neuronal clusters in the Platynereis brain. Moreover, ligand–receptor interaction analyses reveal a single Platynereis corazonin receptor (CrzR) to be activated by CRZ1/GnRHL1, CRZ2/GnRHL2, and GnRHL3 (previously classified as AKH1), whereas 2 AKH-type hormone receptors (GnRHR1/AKHR1 and GnRHR2/AKHR2) respond only to a single ligand (GnRH2/GnRHL4). Crz1/gnrhl1 exhibits a particularly strong up-regulation in sexually mature animals, after feeding, and in specific lunar phases. Homozygous crz1/gnrhl1 knockout animals exhibit a significant delay in maturation, reduced growth, and attenuated regeneration. Through a combination of proteomics and gene expression analysis, we identify enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism as transcriptional targets of CRZ1/GnRHL1 signaling. Our data suggest that Platynereis CRZ1/GnRHL1 coordinates glycoprotein turnover and energy homeostasis with growth and sexual maturation, integrating both metabolic and developmental demands with the worm’s monthly cycle.

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