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Impacts on urban and peri-urban mangroves and their implications for governance: case-studies in the Gambia, Cameroon, Kenya, Brazil and India
Cunha-Lignon, M.; Mohamed, M.O.S.; Nfotabong Atheull, A.; Mukherjee, N.; Maniatis, D.; Flandroy, J.; Kairo, J.G.; Din, N.; Shanker, K.; Koedam, N.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F. (2009). Impacts on urban and peri-urban mangroves and their implications for governance: case-studies in the Gambia, Cameroon, Kenya, Brazil and India, in: Dahdouh-Guebas, F. et al. Proceedings of the Symposium African Botany in Brussels. pp. 62-63
In: Dahdouh-Guebas, F. et al. (2009). Proceedings of the Symposium African Botany in Brussels. Université libre de Bruxelles - ULB / Vrije Universiteit Brussel - VUB: Belgium. 120 + 10 annex. pp., more

Available in  Authors 
    VLIZ: Open Repository 236962 [ OMA ]
Document types: Conference paper; Summary

Authors  Top 
  • Cunha-Lignon, M., more
  • Mohamed, M.O.S., more
  • Nfotabong Atheull, A., more
  • Mukherjee, N., more
  • Maniatis, D., more
  • Flandroy, J., more
  • Kairo, J.G., more
  • Din, N.
  • Shanker, K.
  • Koedam, N., more
  • Dahdouh-Guebas, F., more

Abstract
    Mangroves fulfill many necessary functions from the productive, protective to the social aspects. The conversion of mangrove ecosystems to other uses and the coastal urbanization has caused important reductions on its extent and consequent loss of functions and services along tropical and subtropical coastal zones. This paper describes the major impacts on the urban and peri-urban mangroves, with examples from Banjul (The Gambia), Douala (Cameroon), Mombasa (Kenya), Cubatao (Brazil) and Andhra Pradesh and Kerala (India). In Banjul, the development of the city causes some reductions in the mangrove area. However, there appears to be equilibrium between subsistence uses of the mangroves and its existence, because no major changes could be observed in Tanbi Wetland Complex for 200 years. In contrast, in Douala and Mombasa, wood over-harvesting for domestic firewood and for precarious house construction are the most important human pressures on mangrove forests. The major problem to conserve these mangrove forests is the lack of a management plan, which considers annual quotas for extraction with adequate controls. In Cubatao, the ecosystem is submitted to irregular occupation and motorways constructed through mangrove forests. In Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, the situation is complicated by the presence of mangroves under several land holding categories each of which being governed by different policies. In addition conversion of land to aquaculture is a severe threat to mangroves in India (particularly Andhra Pradesh). In Brazil and India, despite good national legislations protecting mangroves and others coastal ecosystems, the law implementation is ineffective. Implementing participatory management plans are recommended to conserve peri-urban and urban mangroves and maintain a healthy mangrove ecosystem in developing countries.

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