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The CO2 system in a Redfield context during an iron enrichment experiment in the Southern Ocean
Bozec, Y.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Hartmann, C.; Thomas, H.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Nightingale, P.D.; Riebesell, U.; Watson, A.J.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2005). The CO2 system in a Redfield context during an iron enrichment experiment in the Southern Ocean. Mar. Chem. 95(1-2): 89-105. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marchem.2004.08.004
In: Marine Chemistry. Elsevier: Amsterdam. ISSN 0304-4203; e-ISSN 1872-7581, more
Related to:
Bozec, Y.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Hartmann, C.; Thomas, H.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Nightingale, P.D.; Riebesell, U.; Watson, A.J.; de Baar, H.J.W. (2005). The CO2 system in a Redfield context during an iron enrichment experiment in the Southern Ocean, in: Bozec, Y. Process studies of the biological pump of carbon dioxide in the North Sea and Southern Ocean. pp. 135-159, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Keywords
    Air-water exchanges
    Biological production > Primary production
    Chemical compounds > Carbon compounds > Atmospheric gases > Carbon dioxide
    Chemical compounds > Carbon compounds > Carbonates
    Chemical compounds > Nitrogen compounds > Nitrates
    Chemical compounds > Phosphorus compounds > Phosphates
    Chemical elements > Metals > Transition elements > Heavy metals > Iron
    Cycles > Chemical cycles > Geochemical cycle > Biogeochemical cycle > Nutrient cycles
    Dispersion
    Earth sciences > Atmospheric sciences > Meteorology
    Environmental factors
    Gas exchange
    Hazards > Weather hazards > Storms
    Inorganic matter > Carbon > Inorganic carbon > Dissolved inorganic matter > Dissolved inorganic carbon
    Layers > Water column > Mixed layer
    Motion > Atmospheric motion > Winds
    Nutrients (mineral)
    Ocean-atmosphere system
    Organic compounds > Carbohydrates > Glycosides > Pigments > Photosynthetic pigments > Chlorophylls
    Properties > Surface properties
    Sampling > Water sampling
    Uptake
    Water > Surface water
    Water bodies > Oceans
    PS, Antarctic Ocean [Marine Regions]
    Marine/Coastal

Authors  Top 
  • Bozec, Y.
  • Bakker, D.C.E.
  • Hartmann, C.
  • Thomas, H., more
  • Bellerby, R.G.J.
  • Nightingale, P.D.
  • Riebesell, U.
  • Watson, A.J.
  • de Baar, H.J.W.

Abstract
    In November 2000, a second iron enrichment experiment (EisenEx) was carried out in the Southern Ocean. Iron was added on the 8th of November in the centre of an eddy at 21°E, 48°S. During the cruise, the carbonate parameters dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), fugacity of CO2 (fCO2) and pH on the hydrogen ion scale (pHT) were determined from water samples from both inside and outside the iron fertilized patch. Before the start of the experiment, the surface properties of the eddy were quite uniform with respect to the carbonate system and representative of the High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll (HNLC) regions in the Southern Ocean. The response of the carbon dioxide system to the initial ~ 4nM iron (Fe) infusion and to two subsequent reinfusions at 15 m depth was measured every day during the study. The changes in the carbon dioxide system and major nutrients were strongly influenced by the meteorological conditions with a rapid succession of calm, often sunny spells and storm force winds during the 21 days of experiment. Twenty days after the first Fe-infusion, the maximum changes of the carbonate parameters in surface waters of the patch relative to outside patch were -15 µmol kg-1) in DIC, -23 µatm in fCO2, +0.033 units in pHT, -1.61 µM in nitrate and -0.16 µM in phosphate in a mixed layer of 80 m depth. In addition to the daily measurements, several transects were made across the patch that showed a response of the carbonate system to the influence of iron, concomitant with a response in nutrients and chlorophyll. The relative changes in dissolved inorganic carbon to nutrient concentrations inside the patch during the experiment give N/P=12, C/P=82, C/N=5.9, C/Si=2.9 and N/Si=0.5. The effect of the influx of atmospheric CO2 on the DIC inventory was small with values between 0.05 and 0.10 µmol kg-1) d-1), and did not significantly affect these ratios. Although the observed change in DIC in the Fe-enriched surface waters was lower than in the previous Fe-enrichment experiments, the equivalent biological C-uptake of 1.08x109 mol C across the patch after 20 days was significant due to the large horizontal dispersion of the patch. The ratio of biological carbon uptake to Fe added (Cbiological uptake/Feadded) was 2.5x104 mol mol-1.

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