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Multi-level policy in the Baltic Sea: an Environmental Policy Integration analysis of the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone
Miyatani, J. (2021). Multi-level policy in the Baltic Sea: an Environmental Policy Integration analysis of the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone. MA Thesis. Luleå University of Technology: Luleå. 81 pp.

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Document type: Dissertation

Author keywords
    Baltic Sea policy, Policy objectives, Environmental Policy Integration, Frame analysis, Thematic analysis, Environmental policy objectives, Energy policy objectives, Security policy objectives, Nord Stream pipelines

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  • Miyatani, J.

    It is no secret that policy, to a large degree, informs what policy objectives should and can be pursued given a sector or policy domain. However, what happens when multiple levels of policy exist and regulate the same geographical area? The present study explores how complex multi-leveled policy areas affect Environmental Policy Implementation (EPI) and what happens when policy objectives from one level stand against policy objectives on another. By looking at national, supranational, and international policy governing the Swedish Exclusive Economic Zone (SEEZ) and comparing these to the Swedish government decisions on the Nord Stream I and II pipelines (2009 and 2018); the present study has explored to what extent policy objectives and underlying frames from the different policy levels have affected the decisions. The study has worked through the theoretical lenses of Environmental Policy Integration and Frame theory; and has applied thematic analysis and frame analysis methods. The study has concluded that, while policy objectives reflecting strong EPI exist in national policy, the weak EPI of the supranational and international policies policy objectives makes it implausible for effective EPI to be the outcome of decisions in the SEEZ. Without a strong value hierarchy prioritizing environmental objectives, it is unlikely that the Baltic Sea, or other similar multi-leveled policy areas, can achieve sustainable development.

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