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The effects of shoreface nourishments on Spisula and scoters in The Netherlands
Baptist, M.J.; Leopold, M.F. (2009). The effects of shoreface nourishments on Spisula and scoters in The Netherlands. Mar. Environ. Res. 68(1): 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2009.03.003
In: Marine Environmental Research. Applied Science Publishers: Barking. ISSN 0141-1136; e-ISSN 1879-0291, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Abundance
    Accretion > Beach accretion > Beach nourishment
    Aquatic communities > Benthos
    Aquatic organisms > Marine organisms > Aquatic birds > Marine birds
    Biological settlement
    Coastal zone
    Distribution > Geographical distribution
    Population dynamics
    Protection > Environmental protection > Coastal zone management > Shore protection
    Sediments
    Topographic features > Landforms > Coastal landforms > Beaches
    Bivalvia [WoRMS]; Melanitta nigra (Linnaeus, 1758) [WoRMS]; Spisula subtruncata (da Costa, 1778) [WoRMS]
    Marine
Author keywords
    Shoreface nourishment; Spisula subtruncata; Melanitta nigra; North Sea;Seabirds; Benthos; Sediments

Authors  Top 
  • Baptist, M.J., more
  • Leopold, M.F., more

Abstract
    The coast of The Netherlands is protected by nourishing sand. Generally, two different techniques are used, beach nourishment and shoreface nourishment. The latter technique supplies sand at a water depth of about 5–8 m in the surf zone, and has been used on a regular basis since 1997 with increasing volumes since 2001. Observations on the bivalve mollusc Spisula subtruncata that was abundant before 1997 and a key food species for wintering seaduck show a decline since 2001. This coincided with a decrease in the abundance of the Common Scoter Melanitta nigra, the most numerous wintering seaduck off the Dutch coast. These observations raised concern about shoreface nourishments. This study analyses the timing and locations of shoreface nourishments in combination with S. subtruncata abundance and spatial distribution. Against the expectation, no causal relationship was found between the decline of S. subtruncata and shoreface nourishments. Other causes, such as climate change, fisheries, unsuccessful settlement or predation of spatfall are more likely behind the decline of Spisula along the Dutch coast.

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