The success and sustainability of aquaculture depends on minimising the operational cost of feed that in general comprises 50–60% of the total cost in intensive farming. The major feed ingredient, fish meal, is expensive and there is increasing competition with other livestock industries for the available static supply of fish meal. Hence, the incorporation of plant-derived materials in fish feeds is receiving increasing attention. One of the main constraints in the utilisation of plant ingredients in aquaculture is the presence of indigestible carbohydrates, which consist primarily of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs). These form a part of the cell wall structure of cereals and legumes. The presence of NSPs in the diet interferes with feed utilisation and adversely affects performance of the animal. Supplementation of NSP-degrading enzymes in feed mitigates the adverse effects of NSPs. The effects of NSPs in pigs and poultry have been widely studied; however little information exists for fish. This review synthesizes the available information on fish and highlights the knowledge gaps. It is hoped that this review will provide a momentum to the research on the roles of NSPs in fish nutrition and physiology and on the efficient use of NSP-degrading enzymes.