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Chiral separation of a diketopiperazine pheromone from marine diatoms using supercritical fluid chromatography
Frenkel, J.; Wess, C.; Vyverman, W.; Pohnert, G. (2014). Chiral separation of a diketopiperazine pheromone from marine diatoms using supercritical fluid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography B 951-952: 58-61.
In: Journal of Chromatography B. ISSN 1570-0232; e-ISSN 1873-376X, more
Peer reviewed article  

Available in  Authors 

Author keywords
    Chiral separation; Supercritical fluid chromatography; Diketopiperazine;Cyclodextrine; Pheromone

Authors  Top 
  • Frenkel, J.
  • Wess, C.
  • Vyverman, W., more
  • Pohnert, G.

    The proline derived diketopiperazine has been identified in plants, insects and fungi with unknown function and was recently also reported as the first pheromone from a diatom. Nevertheless the stereochemistry and enantiomeric excess of this natural product remained inaccessible using direct analytical methods. Here we introduce a chiral separation of this metabolite using supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several chromatographic methods for chiral analysis of the diketopiperazine from the diatom Seminavis robusta and synthetic enantiomers have been evaluated but neither gas chromatography nor high performance liquid chromatography on different chiral cyclodextrin phases were successful in separating the enantiomers. In contrast, supercritical fluid chromatography achieved baseline separation within four minutes of run time using amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) as stationary phase and 2-propanol/CO2 as mobile phase. This very rapid chromatographic method in combination with ESI mass spectrometry allowed the direct analysis of the cyclic dipeptide out of the complex sea water matrix after SPE enrichment. The method could be used to determine the enantiomeric excess of freshly released pheromone and to follow the rapid degradation observed in diatom cultures. Initially only trace amounts of c(d-Pro–d-Pro) were found besides the dominant c(l-Pro–l-Pro) in the medium. However the enantiomeric excess decreased upon pheromone degradation within few hours indicating that a preferential conversion and thus inactivation of the l-proline derived natural product takes place.

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