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Functional morphology of coronal and peristomeal podia in Sphaerechinus granularis (Echinodermata, Echinoida)
Flammang, P.; Jangoux, M. (1993). Functional morphology of coronal and peristomeal podia in Sphaerechinus granularis (Echinodermata, Echinoida). Zoomorphology 113(1): 47-60.
In: Zoomorphology. Springer-Verlag: Berlin; Heidelberg. ISSN 0720-213X; e-ISSN 1432-234X, more
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    Coronal podia of Sphaerechinus granularis are anchoring (adhering) appendages involved in either locomotion or capture of drift materials. Adhesion is not due to the presumed sucker action of the disc but relies entirely on secretions of the disc epidermis. Peristomeal podia function in wrapping together food particles or food fragments in an adhesive material thus facilitating their capture by the Aristotle's lantern. In both types of podia, the disc epidermis is made up of four cell types: non-ciliated secretory cells (NCS cells) that contain graules whose content is at least partly mucopolysaccharidic in nature, ciliated secretory cells (CS cells) containing granules of unknown nature, ciliated non-secretory cells (CNS cells) and support cells. The cilia of CS cells are subeuticular whereas those of CNS cells, although also short and rigid, traverse the cuticle and protrude in the outer medium. All these cells are presumably involved in an adhesive/de-adhesive process functioning as a duogland adhesive system. Adhesive secretion would be produced by NCS cells and de-adhesive secretion by CS cells. These secretions would be controlled through stimulations by the two types of ciliated cells (receptor cells) which presumably interact with the secretory cells by way of the nerve plexus. This model of adhesion/de-adhesion fits well with the activities of both coronal and peristomeal podia. The secretion of NCS cells would make up a bridge of adhesive material between a podium and the substratum (coronal podia) or would coat and gather food particles (peristomeal podia), respectively. The de-adhesive material enclosed in the granules of CS cells would allow the podia (either coronal or peristomeal) to easily become detached from the substratum and to always remain clear of any particles.

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