Effect of pH on the biological availability of copper to the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana
Blust, R.; Van der Linden, A.; Verheyen, E.; Decleir, W. (1988). Effect of pH on the biological availability of copper to the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Mar. Biol. (Berl.) 98(1): 31-38. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00392656
The effect of pH on the biological availability of copper to the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana was studied with acclimated and non-acclimated individuals for the pH range 5.5 to 8.5. A chemical speciation model was used to calculate the speciation of copper in a chemically-defined saline solution as a function of pH. The lipid solubility of inorganic copper species was determined in hexadecane/saline and octanol/saline extraction systems. Copper is absorbed across the gut epithelium and accumulation is proportional to time over a 120 min experimental period. The biological availability of copper decreases with a decrease in the pH of the salt solution and a concomitant increase of the cupric ion concentration. Acclimation to the experimental pH has a marked effect on the uptake process, which depends on the buffer used. There is no extraction of copper in hexadecane, but a small amount goes in octanol. There is, however, no direct relation between the accumulation of copper in the shrimps and the extraction of copper in octanol. Multiple regression of the accumulation rates for non-acclimated animals on the calculated copper species concentrations shows that much of the variation in accumulation rate with pH is explained when copper hydroxide and/or copper carbonate species are considered to be the biologically available forms. Alternatively, the observations can be interpreted as the result of competitive binding of protons and copper species for carrier systems.