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Distinctive anatomical features of the branchial basket in four Carapidae species (Ophidiiformi, paracanthopterygii)
Vandewalle, P.; Parmentier, E.; Poulicek, M.; Bussers, J.-C.; Chardon, M. (1998). Distinctive anatomical features of the branchial basket in four Carapidae species (Ophidiiformi, paracanthopterygii). Eur. J. Morphol. 36(3): 153-164.
In: European Journal of Morphology. Swets & Zeitlinger/Taylor & Francis: Lisse. ISSN 0924-3860; e-ISSN 1744-4241, more
Peer reviewed article  

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  • Vandewalle, P., more
  • Parmentier, E., more
  • Poulicek, M., more
  • Bussers, J.-C., more
  • Chardon, M., more

    The present study focuses on the branchial basket in four Carapidae species: Carapus acus, Encheliophis boraborensis, Encheliophis homei and Encheliophis gracilis. The aim is to highlight the skeletal and muscular features of the branchial basket, especially those that are believed to be related to their way of life and/or to be linked to the presence of primary sound-producing muscles.The space occupied by the primary sound-producing muscles between the neurocranium and the branchial basket gives rise to distinctive skeletal and muscular features. They prevent the Ist pharyngobranchials Stem becoming attached to the neurocranium in the normal way. These do not seem to play any role in the suspension of the the upper pharyngeal jaws, as it is usually the case in teleosteans. The Ist epibranchials are separated from the 2nd pharyngobranchials. Ossified interarcual elements jointed to the 2nd pharyngobranchials and Ist epibranchials are found in the position usually occupied by the latter The presence of primary sound-producing muscles gives rise to the need for the reorganisation of the musculature which is seen in particular with regards to the levatores branchiales. These al-e not found on the neurocranium but on the hyomandibular.The general skeletal and muscular data and the observations of the stomach contents suggest that the action of the branchial basket is restricted to carrying food in Carapus acus, Encheliophis boraborensis and Encheliophis homei, whereas it could also play a sole in the work of cutting up soft food in Encheliophis gracilis.

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