The architecture of the Kattendijk Formation and the implications on the early Pliocene depositional evolution of the southern margin of the North Sea Basin
Deckers, J.; Louwye, S. (2020). The architecture of the Kattendijk Formation and the implications on the early Pliocene depositional evolution of the southern margin of the North Sea Basin. Geol. Belg. 23(3-4): 323-331. https://hdl.handle.net/10.20341/gb.2020.017
An east-west correlation profile through the upper Neogene succession north of Antwerp, based on cone penetration tests, reveals the architecture of the lower Pliocene Kattendijk Formation. It shows a basal incision of the Kattendijk Formation down to 20 m in Miocene sands and locally even Lower Oligocene clays. The incision is part of a much larger gully system in the region at the base of the Kattendijk Formation. The strongest gully incision is observed along the western profile, and coincides with increases in the thickness of the Kattendijk Formation from its typical four to six meters thickness in the east towards a maximum of 15 m in the west. Correlations show that this additional thickness represents a separate sequence of the Kattendijk Formation that first filled the deepest part of the gully prior to being transgressed and covered by the second sequence deposited in a larger gully system. Both sequences of the Kattendijk Formation have basal transgressive layers, and are lithologically identical. Initial, deep incision at the base of the Kattendijk Formation might have been the result of the constriction of early Pliocene tidal currents that invaded and expanded fluvial or estuarine gullies that had developed during the latest Miocene sea-level low. A similar mechanism had been proposed for the development of late Miocene gully system at the base of the Diest Formation further southeast in northern Belgium. As the wider area was transgressed and covered by the second sequence of the Kattendijk Formation, flow constriction ended, currents weakened and gully incisions were reduced in size.