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The internal division of the Pliocene Lillo Formation: correlation between Cone Penetration Tests and lithostratigraphic type sections
Deckers, J.; Louwye, S.; Goolaerts, S. (2020). The internal division of the Pliocene Lillo Formation: correlation between Cone Penetration Tests and lithostratigraphic type sections. Geol. Belg. 23(3-4): 333-343.
In: Geologica Belgica. Geologica Belgica: Brussels . ISSN 1374-8505; e-ISSN 2034-1954, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    CPT units, lithostr atigr aphy, str atotype sections, Luchtbal Member , Oor der en Member , Kr uisschans Member, Merksem Member

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    The highly fossiliferous Lillo Formation (Pliocene, southern margin North Sea Basin) is formally subdivided in five lithostratigraphical members. While these members are generally relatively easily identifiable in outcrops, they are much more difficultly identifiable in boreholes, hampering geological studies. In the Port of Antwerp area, however, an already existing and dense network of Cone Penetration Tests (CPTs) provides an alternative and additional tool for the recognition of the different lithologies in the Lillo Formation.

    CPTs reveal a clear geotechnical threefold division of the Formation. The lower and upper intervals, herein named CPT units Li-A and Li-C respectively, are characterized by high qc and low Rf values and correspond to shell-bearing, sandy lithologies. CPT unit Li-A can further be divided in a shelly basal subunit Li-A1 and an overlying sandy subunit Li-A2. CPT units Li-A and Li-C are separated by CPT unit Li-B characterized by low qc and high Rf values which correspond to more clayey lithologies.

    Four CPTs selected in close vicinity of four well-documented outcrops, some of them being formal stratotypes for the Formation and some of its members, allowed to correlate the geotechnical units with detailed lithological descriptions as well as the formal stratigraphy. CPT unit Li-A1 can be correlated to the Luchtbal Member and the basal part of the Oorderen Member, whereas unit Li-A2 corresponds to the superjacent sandy body of the Oorderen Member. The overlying CPT units Li-B and Li-C seem to correlate differently in different outcrops to the clayey upper part of the Oorderen Member, Kruisschans and Merksem Members. This inconsistency hinders any direct correlation between the geotechnical stratigraphy and lithostratigraphy of the Members of the Lillo Formation. Further research is needed to find the reason(s) for this inconsistency.

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