Studies in populations of Gracilaria chilensis are incipient along the coasts of Chile. Although this is the species that has driven more attention in research studies, due to its commercial value, these have been most frequently oriented to the development of management and cultures. Rather than population studies per se, the purpose of population surveys has been an attempt to include the phenetic variability occurring in Gracilaria chilensis in taxonomic research. This has been accomplished, within and between populations using morphological features as well as molecular techniques. In fact, the application of molecular techniques in this area is fairly recent in Gracilaria chilensis. Nevertheless, the use of these techniques, concomitant to studies oriented to disclose the basic biology of this taxon, have been able to show characteristics particular to it. The first is the frequent vegetatively spreading by fragmentation in Gracilaria chilensis, allowing the existence of large stocks of clonal thalli. The second is the occurrence of spore coalescence during the germination process, which ultimately results in a thallus morphologically resembling a single individual but genetically heterogeneous. The third is the occurrence of mitotic recombination at the tip of the branches during the process of active growth. These three characteristics imply a population genetic dynamics that differs from that of organisms with purely meiotic and sexual means of recombination.