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Cruising in environmental planning: identifying factors, motivations, and barriers that explain intervention in the air pollution of cruise ships in Amsterdam
Wieringa, R. (2021). Cruising in environmental planning: identifying factors, motivations, and barriers that explain intervention in the air pollution of cruise ships in Amsterdam. MA Thesis. University of Groningen, Faculty of Spatial Sciences: Groningen. 52 pp.

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Document type: Dissertation

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  • Wieringa, R.

Abstract
    This study aims to portray the subject of air pollution in ports caused by cruise shipping through the perspective of environmental planning. This is done by characterising it as a spatial conflict between the ship and the port, applied to the case of Amsterdam. This in turn uncovers factors that contribute to the current situation, and explains reasons for intervention or a lack thereof through motivations and barriers of both local authorities and the cruising industry. These motivations and barriers are explored through literature review, policy review, and the analysis of conducted interviews. The identified barriers are a lack of authority of the port over the cruising industry, cost of potential interventions and investment risk, and the external benefits that cruise ships offer to a port. Motivations are the external costs of air pollution and tourism. These two are subject to discussion, indicating that the impacts of tourism and air pollution are subjective in nature. This is also shown in the other identified motivation, which is public opinion on the matter. As a result, motivations are a matter of subjectivity, whereas barriers are determined by much more rigid investment costs.

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