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Survey strategies and techniques in underwater geoarchaeological research: an overview with emphasis on prehistoric sites
Missiaen, T.; Sakellariou, D.; Flemming, N.C. (2017). Survey strategies and techniques in underwater geoarchaeological research: an overview with emphasis on prehistoric sites, in: Bailey, G.N. et al. (Ed.) Under the sea: archaeology and palaeolandscapes of the continental shelf. Coastal Research Library, 20: pp. 21-37. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-3-319-53160-1_2
In: Bailey, G.N. et al. (Ed.) (2017). Under the sea: Archaeology and palaeolandscapes of the continental shelf. Coastal Research Library, 20. Springer: Cham. ISBN 978-3-319-53158-8. XIII, 436 pp. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/978-3-319-53160-1, more
In: Coastal Research Library. Springer: Cham. ISSN 2211-0577; e-ISSN 2211-0585, more

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Keyword
    Marine
Author keywords
    Technology Survey Methodology Submerged Prehistory Remote Sensing

Authors  Top 
  • Missiaen, T., more
  • Sakellariou, D.
  • Flemming, N.C.

Abstract
    Underwater geoarchaeological studies typically involve case studies that vary widely in scale, environment and stage of application. As a result, the range of survey techniques and applied methods is very broad. This paper aims to present an overview of state-of-the-art techniques and survey strategies for submerged prehistoric site evaluation. We focus not only on conventional techniques but also on technologies that were designed and developed for other research applications but which can or could be effectively applied to submerged prehistoric studies. Different techniques discussed in this paper include remote sensing (acoustic seafloor and sub-seafloor imaging, Lidar, electric and (electro)magnetic techniques), direct investigations (coring, sampling and excavation), 2D and 3D photographic techniques, and the use of remotely operated vehicles. Notwithstanding the enormous technological progress that has been made in recent years, a large number of challenges remain not only regarding detection and excavation (especially in deeper water) but also with regard to the cost-effectiveness of submerged geoarchaeological surveys. The set-up of ‘best practice’ guidelines and close(r) collaboration with industry may provide some solutions.

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