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Hidden founders? Strong bottlenecks and fine-scale genetic structure in mangrove populations of the Cameroon Estuary complex
Ngeve, M.N.; Van der Stocken, T.; Menemenlis, D.; Koedam, N.; Triest, L. (2017). Hidden founders? Strong bottlenecks and fine-scale genetic structure in mangrove populations of the Cameroon Estuary complex. Hydrobiologia 803(1): 189-207. https://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10750-017-3369-y
In: Hydrobiologia. Springer: The Hague. ISSN 0018-8158; e-ISSN 1573-5117, more
Peer reviewed article  

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Keywords
    Marine; Brackish water; Fresh water
Author keywords
    Ocean currents; Hydrochory; Dispersal; Connectivity; Gene flow; Mangroveexpansion; Effective population size; African mangroves

Authors  Top 
  • Ngeve, M.N., more
  • Van der Stocken, T., more
  • Menemenlis, D.

Abstract
    Fine-scale genetic structure (FSGS) is common in plants, driven by several ecological and evolutionary processes, among which is gene flow. Mangrove trees rely on ocean surface currents to spread their hydrochorous propagules through space. Since pollen dispersal is generally restricted to local scales, high level of short-distance propagule dispersal is expected to result in FSGS in Rhizophora spp. We investigated FSGS, recent bottleneck events, as well as historical and contemporary expansion patterns in Rhizophora racemosa populations from the entire coast of Cameroon, using 11 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Populations of the Cameroon Estuary complex (CEC) showed significant FSGS and significant reduction in effective population sizes (recent bottlenecks), compared to the other areas. Additionally, our results indicate stark differences between historical and contemporary expansion models. These suggest that contemporary processes such as restricted propagule dispersal, bottleneck events from high indirect and direct anthropogenic pressure, and recolonization by founders from ancient local pockets/refugia most plausibly shape the patterns of FSGS in the CEC.

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