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Microplastics in zee: de scheepvaart als bron
Tyvaert, F. (2019). Microplastics in zee: de scheepvaart als bron. MA Thesis. Hogere Zeevaartschool Antwerpen, Faculteit Wetenschappen: Antwerpen. xii, 118 pp.

Thesis info:

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Document type: Dissertation

Keywords
    Coatings
    Shipping
Author keywords
    Plastic, sea water pollution

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Abstract
    The smallest form of plastic waste is indicated by the general term microplastics. Micro plastics are polymers that are smaller than 5 mm. Worldwide, it is estimated that about 4.8 - 12.7 million tons of plastic end up in our marine environment. The microplastics are divided into two large categories. The first category are the primary microplastics (smaller than 1 mm). These plastic particles are deliberately manufactured to be microscopic. These are mainly found in cosmetics products such as hand cleaners and facial scrubs. The second category are the secondary microplastics (1-5 mm). In contrast to the primary micro plastics, these are formed from the disintegration of larger plastic waste. Over time, the culmination of physical, biological and chemical processes can reduce the structural integrity of plastic waste, resulting in fragmentation. Marine coatings are responsible for a global microplastic emission between 1.68% and 3.7%. It is estimated that 55% of the solid components in a coating can form microplastics. The microplastics can enter the marine environment in three different ways: during application, during weathering and during removal of the coating. The total emission to the sea for commercial vessels is 6%: 1.8% during application, 1% during weathering and 3.2% during removal of a coating. The total emissions towards land for commercial vessels is 5%, of which 1.8% during application and 3.2% during removal. Till today, there is no legislation with guidelines related to plastics in marine coatings.

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