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Salivary and gut microbiomes play a significant role in in vitro oral bioaccessibility, biotransformation, and intestinal absorption of arsenic from food
Calatayud, M.; Xiong, C.; Du Laing, G.; Raber, G.; Francesconi, K.; Van de Wiele, T. (2018). Salivary and gut microbiomes play a significant role in in vitro oral bioaccessibility, biotransformation, and intestinal absorption of arsenic from food. Environ. Sci. Technol. 52(24): 14422-14435. https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b04457
In: Environmental Science and Technology. American Chemical Society: Easton. ISSN 0013-936X; e-ISSN 1520-5851, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Auteurs  Top 
  • Calatayud, M., meer
  • Xiong, C.
  • Du Laing, G., meer
  • Raber, G., meer
  • Francesconi, K.
  • Van de Wiele, T., meer

Abstract
    The release of a toxicant from a food matrix during the gastrointestinal digestion is a crucial determinant of the toxicant’s oral bioavailability. We present a modified setup of the human simulator of the gut microbial ecosystem (SHIME), with four sequential gastrointestinal reactors (oral, stomach, small intestine, and colon), including the salivary and colonic microbiomes. Naturally arsenic-containing rice, mussels, and nori seaweed were digested in the presence of microorganisms and in vitro oral bioaccessibility, bioavailability, and metabolism of arsenic species were evaluated following analysis by using HPLC/mass spectrometry. When food matrices were digested with salivary bacteria, the soluble arsenic in the gastric digestion stage increased for mussel and nori samples, but no coincidence impact was found in the small intestinal and colonic digestion stages. However, the simulated small intestinal absorption of arsenic was increased in all food matrices (1.2–2.7 fold higher) following digestion with salivary microorganisms. No significant transformation of the arsenic species occurred except for the arsenosugars present in mussels and nori. In those samples, conversions between the oxo arsenosugars were observed in the small intestinal digestion stage whereupon the thioxo analogs became major metabolites. These results expand our knowledge on the likely metabolism and oral bioavailabiltiy of arsenic during human digestion, and provide valuable information for future risk assessments of dietary arsenic.

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