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The influence of butter and oils on oxidative reactions during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of meat and fish
Van Hecke, T.; De Smet, S. (2021). The influence of butter and oils on oxidative reactions during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of meat and fish. Foods 10(11): 2832. https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112832
In: Foods. MDPI AG: Basel. ISSN 2304-8158, meer
Peer reviewed article  

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Author keywords
    4-hydroxy-2-hexenal; 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal; protein carbonyl compounds; vegetable oil; fish oil

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Abstract
    Oxidative reactions during cooking and gastrointestinal digestion of meat and fish lead to the formation of various lipid- and protein oxidation products, some of which are toxic. In the present study, it was investigated how the addition of 3% butter or oils affect lipid- and protein oxidation during cooking and in vitro digestion of meat (chicken thigh, chicken breast, beef) and fish (mackerel, cod). These muscle foods were selected based on their differences in heme-Fe and PUFA contents, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, and therefore varying potential to form oxidation products during digestion. Without additional fat, mackerel digests displayed the highest n-3 PUFA oxidation (4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, propanal, thiobarbituric reactive acid substances), and chicken digests the highest n-6 PUFA oxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, hexanal), whereas both lipid- and protein oxidation (protein carbonyl compounds) were low in cod and beef digests. Lipid oxidative reactions were generally not altered by the addition of butter to any muscle matrix, whereas the addition of fish oil and safflower oil in different ratios (3:0, 2:1, 1:2, 0:3) as n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA source respectively, stimulated oxidative reactions, especially during digestion of beef. Since beef was considered the muscle matrix with the highest potential to stimulate oxidation in the added fat substrate, in a second experiment, beef was cooked and digested with 3% butter or seven commercial vegetable oils (sunflower-, maize-, peanut-, rapeseed-, olive-, rice bran- or coconut oil), all labeled ‘suitable for heating’. No relevant oxidative reactions were however observed during digestion of beef with any of these commercial vegetable oils.

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